Agriculture is older than the languages and script. All the documented papers on Agriculture, its importance and allied processes or
technologies are only for the discussion sake.
“Mother of all cultures is Agriculture”. Agriculture can also be defined as the way of human intervention with the plant growing patterns. The pattern decides the method of agriculture and in turn decides the culture with which the mankind gets connected with Panchabhutas (Prithvi-Earth, Jala-Water, Agni-Fire, Vayu-Air and Akasha-Sky). According to Ayurveda and Yoga, complete health of the human being is associated with these Panchabhutas.
The terminologies in few languages are the bi product of Agriculture, the distance, time etc are defined with local agriculture subjects. The word godhuli has multiple meaning other than dusk time (evening). Go- means Cow and dhulmeans dust, the dust created by cows getting up after it's grazing in the forest. In the olden days when the cows come back from the forest after being away from villages, country men would know that evening is going to happen.
Agriculture science is a skill and a process; it is a total combination of art and science of cultivation of crops, rearing of the animals for the livelihood and economic gain. It has two main partitions Crop production and livestock production. Its eventual resolution is for food production, and fulfilment of other human needs such as shelter, clothing, medicines, tools, artistic decors and display and for economic progress.
Agriculture could be referred to as production, processing, promotion and distribution of agricultural products. In addition to provision of food and raw material, agriculture also provides employment opportunities to very large percentage of the population. It is a source of livelihood, contribution to national revenue, supply of food as fodder, significance to international trade, marketable surplus, countries GDP, source of raw material, foreign exchange resources, great employment opportunities, economic development, source of savings, food security.
Spiritual and dharmic basis for agriculture
According to the our mythology and vedic scriptures, our universe is designated to pass through four great epochs or Yugas, Kruta Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. Satya Yuga or the Age of Truth is said to last for 12,000 divine years (43,20,000 human years), Treta Yuga for divine years 3,600 (12,96,000 human years), Dwapara Yuga for 2,400 divine years (8,64,000 human years) and Kali Yuga will last for 1,200 divine years (4,32,000 human years). We believe the process of creation moves in cycles and that each cycle has four great yugas, or epochs, of time.
Agriculture and the process involved in the crop raising or animal rearing, the yield and bi products of agriculture is very evidently seen from early eras starting from Treta Yuga.
In Vishnu Purana, there is a mention as throughout these four yugas, Lord Vishnu is said to have been incarnated ten times in ten different avatars known as Dasavatara.
Lord Rama of the epic poem, the Ramayana lived in Treta Yuga. Ramayana, an ancient Indian epic poem written by Sage Valmiki narrates about forest in one of its Kanda Aranya Kanda (Book of Forest), also he has discussed about the geography and forestry of the region in Kishkinda Kanda.
In Yudha Kanda, when Lakshmana gets severely wounded during the battle with Indrajit. Hanuman would be sent to Dronagiri Parvatha to fetch Sanjivini. (Life restoring herb) from Himalaya. Scientist has proven that geographical features, altitude, ecology, topography and climatic conditions are primarily responsible in making the Himalayan region a rich repository in biodiversity, especially in plant life. It has more than 400 species of medicinal Plants.
Seetha, a daughter of king Janaka is also called as daughter of earth, Seetha word also means 'to plough'. While performing a ritual for having a child, King Janaka finds Seetha while grooving the earth furrowed by the plough.
Mithele, King Janaka`s kingdom was agriculture oriented province. The plough is symbolically used on the flag on Janaka`s Chariot.
Next Avathara of Lord Vishnu is Balarama, Rama with the plough. Was his occupation was Agriculture or it just depicts the livelihood of human being during that period.
In the Dwapara Yuga, Lord Vishnu is reincarnated in the name of Lord Krishna was born in this age. We all know Sri Krishna during his bala avastha (Young age), he is depicted as mischievous, an ordinary ignorant boy stealing butter. Butter is a bi product of Milk.
Cattle rearing and dairy were the major occupation of people in Bridavan where Sri Krishna spent his childhood. Animal husbandry & Dairy Industry are allied Doctors of Agriculture.
When Sri Krishna moves to Dwarakapuri where he establish his kingdom, his good old friend Sudhama meets Krishna and offers beaten rice (Avalakki / Poha) to lord Krishna as it is his favourite dish. The technology of processing paddy to beaten rice was already known in Dwapara Yuga.
It is known that the word 'Agriculture' is derived from Latin word Ager means land or field and culture means cultivation. In our puranas, thousands of years ago it is described as Krishi is special activity or process by itself of producing food. The word Krishi meaning ploughing, cultivation of soil, agriculture, the harvest, animal husbandry, success in husbandry; the harvest (Krishi phala),the earth, activity in agriculture (karmaan), KrishiSeva,
The word Krishi is derived by the word krisavilekhana, the act of making furrow, digging delving, uprooting mainly using a metal.
It is a continuous process starting from land preparation, sowing, weeding, appling fertiliser, irrigation till golden harvest which can ideally be achieved only by the artist. Agriculture is a special art. Only a farmer knows the fact that today`s seed is tomorrow`s harvest. There is no end for agriculture. Every man has a holiday but a soldier and a farmer can never take a holiday there can only be an interim break or intervals. After a short relaxation again farmer get into this holy continuous process. A golden harvest can be obtained only with dedication, craft undertaken with complete control.
Agriculture has a history of thousands of years. However it is quit hard to describe as when is started and it is beyond our imagination. The evolution of agriculture can only be derived using consequential documents, treatise and manuscripts.